ZERO Evidence that COVID Fulfills Koch’s 4 Germ Theory Postulates – Dr. Andrew Kaufman & Sayer Ji

The pathogenicity of sars-cov-2 in hace2 transgenic mice
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2312-y

“In late December 2019, cases of COVID-19—which is caused by SARS-CoV-2—were identified and reported from Wuhan city (Hubei province, China), where they were linked to a seafood market at which exotic animals were also sold and consumed 1,3.”

Reference 1: Zhu, N. et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N. Engl. J. Med. 382, 727–733 (2020). https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa2001017

– “We describe in this report the use of molecular techniques and unbiased DNA sequencing to discover a novel betacoronavirus that is likely to have been the cause of severe pneumonia in three patients in Wuhan, China.”

– “Although our study does not fulfill Koch’s postulates, our analyses provide evidence implicating 2019-nCoV in the Wuhan outbreak.”

Reference 3: Ren, L. L. et al. Identification of a novel coronavirus causing severe pneumonia in human: a descriptive study. Chin. Med. J. (Engl.)133, 1015–1024 (2020). https://journals.lww.com/cmj/Fulltext/2020/05050/Identification_of_a_novel_coronavirus_causing.3.aspx 

– “These findings primarily indicate that the novel CoV is associated with the pneumonia that developed in these patients. However, it remains to be determined whether this novel CoV is capable of causing similar diseases in experimental animals.”

– In conclusion, we identified a novel bat-borne CoV associated with a severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.

The pathogenicity of sars-cov-2 in hace2 transgenic mice
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2312-y

“Our results demonstrate the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in mice, which—together with previous clinical studies1—completely satisfies Koch’s postulates7 and confirms that SARS-CoV-2 is the pathogen responsible for COVID-19″.

Reference 7: Rivers, T. M. Viruses and Koch’s postulates. J. Bacteriol. 33, 1–12 (1937). https://jb.asm.org/content/jb/33/1/1.full.pdf

– “It is obvious that Koch’s postulates have not been satisfied in viral diseases.”

Robert Koch (1884, in an article on TB):

–  “… it is not sufficient to establish only the concomitant occurrence of disease and parasite but the parasite must be shown to be the real cause.  This can be done only by fully isolating the parasite from the body and all products of disease which might be considered as having a deleterious effect and producing the disease again with all its characteristics by the introduction of the isolated organisms into a normal host.”

Robert Koch (1890, 10th International Congress of Medicine, Berlin):

– “However, if it can be proved: first that  the parasite occurs in  every  case of the disease in question, and under circumstances which can account for the pathological changes and clinical course of the disease; secondly, that it occurs in no other disease as a fortuitous and non­ pathogenic  parasite;  and  thirdly,  that  it,  after being fully isolated from the body and repeatedly grown in pure culture, can induce the disease anew…”

Koch’s Postulates according to Rivers:

1. The parasite (virus) is present in every case of the disease

2. The parasite should be fully isolated from the body and all products of disease (i.e. purified)

3. The parasite should be grown in a pure culture (not possible for viruses)

4. The isolated parasite produces the same disease, with all of its characteristics, in a normal host

Rivers Modification for pure culture:

“… the spirit of his [Koch’s] rules of proof still holds in that a worker must demonstrate that a virus is not only associated with a disease but that is actually the cause… this is accomplished by the production with a degree of regularity of a transmissible infection in susceptible experimental hosts by means of inoculation of material, free from ordinary microbes or ricketssiae, obtained from patients with the natural disease…”

The pathogenicity of sars-cov-2 in hace2 transgenic mice
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2312-y

“Our results demonstrate the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in mice, which—together with previous clinical studies1—completely satisfies Koch’s postulates7 and confirms that SARS-CoV-2 is the pathogen responsible for COVID-19″.

Koch 1: Virus in all cases

Zu study

– no virus particle directly from patient demonstrated or identified

– short RNA sequences of unknown origin from BAL sample not conclusive

– microscope images of cell cultures

– no way to identify nature of imaged particles- only 3 patients in study, not a sufficient sample size

Koch 2: Purified Virus

– inoculated material obtained from cell culture based upon Zhu paper methods (provided by co-author W. Tan) was not a pure sample of virus particles, it also contains monkey cells (Vero E6), DMEM (growth medium), fetal bovine serum, penicillin, and streptomycin.

– material is not directly from “a patient with the natural disease.”

Koch 4: …the disease anew

  • “Clinical manifestations were recorded from 13 mice”

          – 7 of 19 (37%) in experimental mice group

          – 3 of 15 (20%) in wild type mice group

          – 3 of 15 (20%) mack infected mice group* (* Not a true negative control group)

  • Chi-square 1.69, p = .429

          – Not a significant difference between groups!

  • Weight loss and slightly bristled fur noted in 7 subjects (37%) but not controls, other clinical manifestations not mentioned
  • Less than half developed any symptoms
  • Weight loss is not a symptom of Covid-19!!!
  • Autopsy findings in Covid-19

          – Italian study of 38 patients (Carsana, The Lancet, June 8, 2020):

          > Diffuse alveolar damage

          > Necrosis of pneumocytes

          > Hyaline membranes

          > Interstitial edema (congestion)

          > Metaplasia

          > Blood clots in small arterial vessels

          – German study of 12 patients (Wichmann, Annals of Internal Medicine, August 18, 2020):

          > Diffuse alveolar damage

          > Hyaline membranes

          > Metaplasia

          > Pulmonary embolism (blood clot)

  • Autopsy findings in this study

          – Interstitial pneumonia with predominant macrophage infiltration

          – No hyaline membranes

          – No edema

          – No metaplasia

          – No blood clots at all!!!

 

Conclusions

The first sentence of this paper was a lie

None of Koch’s postulates have been satisfied despite the claim

Despite a toxic liquid from monkey cells grown with infected lung pus and poisonous chemicals being inserted into a bunch of monkeys’ noses, less than half showed any symptoms at all. No mice developed any symptoms or autopsy findings consistent with covid-19!

 

https://odysee.com/zero-evidence-that-covid-fulfills-koch-s-4-germ-theory-postulates:a